They are found live, in settlements. The intent of this paper is to point out that they represent a world of signals that can be detected through the methodological tools of observation and discussion with residents; also and therefore, to create guidelines for operational tools useful for an aware and contemporary design in their advancement process.
Explanations of these values are obtained once the focus of observation is passed from object to process, and the objects are perceived as products of processes. This is the only possible way of developing adequate principles of future architectural realizations in Romani settlements that would be innovative, but within the articulation system of the local community.
The paper will present a case study of a Romani settlement with this methodological apparatus applied as well as its concept, all research steps and results accomplished by such procedure.
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Milena Grbic instigates that the tendency in accomplishing the right of housing for the Romani has mostly remained theoretical, since not a single analysis with that aim included life experiences and actual processes of Romani housing Grbic, Umberto Eco stated that one must pay attention to semantical values that spatial relations obtain in certain ethnological and social situations Eco, Having all this in mind brings up a thought which calls upon a real practice of housing and usage of space.
As Breda Case Scheer cited Kropf suggest, one way in which urban morphology is distinguished from other kinds of urban analysis is the starting point of acquiring formal urban data Scheer, In that continuity the user positions himself in the center. In that sense observing the user opens a possibility to make the social Hermes Housing Option 1994 into a transparent media.
According to David Harvey writing, the simplest explanation of daily practice was set by Hagerstrand, when he treated individuals as useful agents that spend time moving in space Harvey, His setting can be a useful explanation to how their daily life occurs in time and space, with the thought that these schemes ignore the question how and in what manner do certain Hermes Housing Option 1994 projects and their characteristic liaisons and limitations become hegemonic, as well as the need to discover the causes of domination of certain social relations and assigning meaning to a place or space.
In the methodological sense, process takes precedence over things. We should focus on processes rather than things and we should think of things as products of processes Harvey, Hence it necessary to research the reasons for which certain things have appeared, or are still happening inside the settlement. Key concept to interrogate actual processes of Romani housing Cross — section.
A cross — section is a summed description, or a symbolical illustration of the researched.
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It represents all registered processes and changes in time; it marks agents and their behaviors in certain points of the house and their close neighborhood.
Agents are all users of space, i. They are the ones that make it dynamical.
- Origin and name[ edit ] Francesco Patricius came from the town Cres on the homonymous island in front of Istria Italian Cherso.
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They behave accordingly to their everyday needs and in the frame of custom rules. All other components of the cross-section depend on their presence. Based on age structure they can be divided into older members, younger members and children, since the Romani life span is no longer than 50 years. In diagrams, agents are represented as circles with the smallest diameter. The size of these circles is the same. The difference in age structure is demonstrated in different colors.
Territories are spaces that exist inside the cross-sections.
Institutions have been perceived according to the frequent presence of the agent, and are created in space where most territories collide.
In diagrams, the intensity is marked by the thickness of the line, while the included space, as up until this point, is marked with the Hermes Housing Option 1994 of the circle. Forming process: Exploring real processes of Romani housing The presented research refers to the demonstration of a process in relation to the established methodology and research apparatus in the Laudanov Sanac Hermes Housing Option 1994 settlement Hermes Housing Option 1994 Zemun, Belgred, Serbia.
Older agents and children remain. Besides this 2 or 3 spots in the cross — section there are occurrences of institutions of a much higher intensity and constant in duration. In this space a small outer institution is formed. Considering the fact that both spaces are equally dynamically used, in this context an institution is created that includes the basic room of the closed part of the residence and the porch that, on the level of immediate neighborhood is a grand institution.
Agents return into the cross — section. The intensity of all institutions is approximately the same. The institution, once again, includes a basic room and a porch, and by augmenting the number Hermes Housing Option 1994 agents, her intensity becomes stronger.
Drawing 1 Dining Drawing 2 Most of the agents are in the cross — section. Evening Drawing 2 During the evening, most of the agents remain in the cross — section.
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Again, by using, the basic room and the porch make for a more intensive institution. Institutions do not have intensity. Secondary raw materials Drawing 3 Secondary raw materials piling is a very frequent presence in the cross — section. Drawing 3 Expanding the residence Drawing 4 Expanding the residence leaves the greatest consequences on the institutions. Expanding the residence is most often done horizontally and in two ways.
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The family is of the utmost importance for the Romani. The Romani family lifestyle is Hermes Housing Option 1994 turned towards the interior space of the house as it is to the open space around the house.
A group of 3 to 5 houses is organized around a common open space that is differentiated so that the parts that are just around the house belong to each house and the space that all houses from this group use, which demonstrates Hermes Housing Option 1994 existence of a casually created but well organized urban pattern.
This declaration should be carefully analyzed since it changes the typical approach of designing social housing from individual to group housing.
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The research has also demonstrated that within the settlement gathering spots are created whose frequency of usage does not depend upon the houses nearby, but it bello scambio functioning at the level of the settlement and its position does not change depending on the age structure of the users, the only variable is the intensity during the day.
In certain spaces in the Hermes Housing Option 1994 there were containers used for depositing secondary raw materials, while in parts of the settlement where they were inexistent, raw materials were deposited around the house, which shows a real possibility of depositing raw materials in one place in the settlement.
In a wider sense, the research has shown that general strategies of institutional space create a social life on just a theoretical plan. The user should not always remain passive although his presence is strategically questioned, and his life experiences are not to be neglected.
La ricerca semiotica e il metodo strutturale Bompiani, Milano, Italy. Grbic, M.
Zed Book, London. Arri ghetti, A. Donzelli Editore, Roma.
Harvey, D. LeGates and Frederic Lefebvre, H. Stout, ed.
However public and private sectors have been attempt to provide sort of successful and unsuccessful housing schemes. Subsequently the Sustainable housing concepts as a Measuring tools of characteristics are presented and the study is concluded by result and discussion part.
Untilany land on the periphery of the city was considered property of the one who had developed it. The Hermes Housing Option 1994 reasons for the development of suburban settlements are the increasing number of immigrants as well as lower-income families who cannot afford to live in the city.
This has resulted in opzioni binarie otc concentration of new urban development in the existing suburban villages and towns and also formation of new satellite towns around the city.
Unequal spatial distribution of population and Hermes Housing Option 1994 in Tehran as well as Metropolitan region is a result of core-periphery duality and north-south bipolarity Madanipour, The new residential developments by private sector and the sectorial nature of the public sector intervention have undermined green space by giving priority Hermes Housing Option 1994 development projects rather than environmental protection Madanipour This geographical segregation is the main base of social separation in Tehran dissimilar to many American and European Pedrazzini Beginning of the World War II suspended the all construction program,after war, need for new housing in Europe.
Iranian scholars who studied abroad attempt to have similar practice to respond Hermes Housing Option 1994 housing problem in Iran. Over-population, increasing rents and land prices in the center of Tehran made de-centralization and expansion necessary.
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Case studies: Fifteen cases targeted low-income and middle class housing neighborhoods from s until now, was selected to study. Narmak [Si-E-Tir] Narmak formerly called Si-e-Tir has been initiated in in an area of hectares in northeastern Tehran come lavorare correttamente con le opzioni middleclass and low-income employees Gharipourpredicted 25, residents to live in.
The layout proposed a grid network with a great green boulevard which ran east to west, included public plazas and distributed to each corresponding blocks.